Urinalysis Report: Physico-Chemical Examination

In a routine Urinalysis, the Physico-chemical examination comprises analysis of properties that help to define how a Urine Sample appears to the naked eye.

These include the following:


Normal Urine is typically Pale/Straw yellow to Dark yellow in Colour due to the presence of pigment Urochrome.

Urine Color Normal
Normal Colour Range for Human Urine (Image Source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2981209/What-PEE-says-health-clear-stream-means-drinking-coffee-red-urine-signal-cancer.html )

Urine Color Chart Cleveland Clinic
Urine Colour Chart showing Normal Urine Colour variations (Courtesy: Cleveland Clinic, USA)

Variations in urine colour could arise due to certain foods, medicines or diseases in the urinary system, that has been discussed separately here  


A healthy Urine sample is Clear & Transparent in appearance such that members with normal eyesight can read what’s printed on a paper placed across the sample.

Urine Clarity
Variations in urine sample clarity. Normal urine should be clear & transparent (as in the first sample here)


In urinalysis, the Volume of urine that you need to collect would depend on your water intake prior to sample collection and the kind of test advised. This could be a Spot (single sample) collection in a sterile container or 24-hour urine collection in a clean, chemically-treated gallon (usually a part of kidney disease monitoring).

Urine Volume URE


Urine may have a mild odour due to the presence of smell-producing substances such as Urea. There could be a strong ammonia-like smell (as in urea fertilizers) in long-standing urine (think unflushed toilets). This is due to the breakdown of urea to toxic ammonia upon exposure to air. The strong ammonia-like smell may also be present in “thick”  urine in dehydrated patients.

Urinalysis Odour

Your urine odour can also vary with certain foods, medicines or in some disease-states (will explain separately).


This is a measure of how “concentrated” your urine is, in relation to plain water. It indicates the kidney’s ability to re-absorb sufficient water from the initial dilute urine within the kidney filters, back into the bloodstream as per need. In good health, the Specific Gravity of Urine should be between 1.005-1.030. Higher the value, the more concentrated the urine sample is.

Urinalysis Specific Gravity



Click on the image links below to learn the “Chemical Examination” and “Microscopic Examination” of your Urine Sample.


Chemical Examination urinalysis
  Microscopic urinalysis


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Urinalysis: Physical examination
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Urinalysis: Physical examination
Physico-chemical examination in urinalysis analyzes properties that help to define how a Urine Sample appears to the naked eye.
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All Things Kidney Official
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