Urinalysis: Must-Know Facts


What Why How

 

WHAT IS URINALYSIS / URINE TEST?

A Urinalysis or a Urine Test is a laboratory-based test of your urine sample. In such tests, laboratories assess your urine sample along with certain physical, chemical, microscopic and/or microbiological (bacterial) criteria against research-approved standards. “Urinalysis” is a composite word made of two words – “Urine” and “Analysis”. The report helps your doctor to get an insight into your overall health status & support their clinical decision-making.

TYPES OF URINALYSIS

URE urinalysis

Urine C/S urinalysis

Specialized Tests urinalysis

 



 

WHY IS IT DONE?

Your doctor may advise a urinalysis for several reasons:

– To check your overall health

Your doctor may recommend a urinalysis as part of a routine medical exam, pregnancy check-up, pre-surgery preparation, or on hospital admission to screen for a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, kidney disease, and liver disease.

– To diagnose a medical condition

Your doctor may suggest a urinalysis if you’re experiencing abdominal pain, back pain, frequent or painful urination, blood in your urine, or other urinary problems. A urinalysis may help diagnose the cause of these symptoms.

– To monitor a medical condition

If you have a medical condition, such as kidney disease or a urinary tract disease, your doctor may recommend a urinalysis on a regular basis to monitor your condition and treatment.

 



 
HOW SHOULD YOU PREPARE?

1️⃣ If you are only going for a Urinalysis, you can eat and drink normally before the test.

2️⃣ If you’re having other tests at the same time, you may need to fast for a certain amount of time or drink a lot of water before the test. Your doctor will give you specific instructions. 

3️⃣ Many drugs, including common medicines and health supplements, can affect the results of a Urinalysis. Make sure you tell your doctor about any medications, vitamins or other supplements you’re taking, beforehand.

 


 

HOW TO COLLECT THE URINE SAMPLE?

1️⃣ The Urine Sample must be collected in a sterile/unused/clean container provided by your doctor/nurse at the hospital lab.

2️⃣ If you stay close enough to the lab such that you are able to deliver your urine sample for the testing straightaway, you may collect a urine sample at home after cleaning your urinary opening (as described below). Else, it is advisable to collect the sample in the hospital/clinic.

Urine samples start to go unviable after about an hour of storage at room temperature. Keeping the sample container in the fridge after sealing it properly in a plastic bag can keep it viable for about 24 hours. However, it may not be possible for all to ensure that the fridge temperature is suitable for the purpose. Hence, best not to attempt unsupervised.

3️⃣ For some tests, especially if it is a Urine culture for bacteria, you may be asked to collect the sample first thing in the morning. At that time, your Urine is more concentrated, and chances of detecting any abnormal results are better.

NOTE: In some cases, your doctor may choose to insert a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through the urinary tract opening and into the bladder to collect the urine sample.

 

 

THE CORRECT METHOD TO COLLECT YOUR URINE SAMPLE

The clinically recommended method to collect a Urine Sample is technically termed, “Mid-stream Clean Catch” sample. Quite literally, this translates as the procedure of collecting the urine sample in the lab-provided container “from a continuing urinary stream and avoiding the first and the last couple of seconds of urination”.

 

RATIONALE:

Our skin around the urinary opening is prone to contamination by tiny amounts of external agents such as oils and lotions, dust from clothes or even bacteria from the environment in some cases. These start to wash away with the urinary stream in the first 2-3 seconds of urination. If we collect our sample by directly starting to urinate into the sterile container, chances of passing such unavoidable contaminants into the collected sample are high. In the case of males, bacteria from hands may also be an additional source of contamination, especially during the last part of the urinary stream. This may unnecessarily interfere with the actual Urine Testing procedure and give false results.

 

TECHNIQUE

1️⃣ Label the clean (sterile) container with your Name, Age & Date of Sample collection. In most Clinics, you should receive a labeled container, in which case, you should check the specifics in the label.

2️⃣ Wash your hands with soap.

3️⃣ Cleanse the urinary opening (preferably with intimate-hygiene wipes)

◾ Women should spread their labia and clean from front to back.

◾ Men should wipe the tip of the penis.

 

4️⃣ Wait for 2-3 seconds after your urine stream begins before holding the collection container into your “ongoing” urine stream. 

5️⃣ Urinate at least 1 to 2 ounces (approximately 30-60 millilitres) into the collection container.

6️⃣ Finish urinating into the toilet.

7️⃣ Screw the lid of the container shut.

8️⃣ Wash your hands thoroughly.

9️⃣ Deliver the sample to the clinic/lab technicians as directed.

 

The urine sample is sent to a lab for analysis. You can return to your usual activities immediately.

 


 

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REFERENCES:

1. https://www.nhs.uk/common-health-questions/infections/how-should-i-collect-and-store-a-urine-sample/

2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/urinalysis/about/pac-20384907

 


 

Summary
Urinalysis - Must-know basics
Article Name
Urinalysis - Must-know basics
Description
Urinalysis : Get the must-know facts and know the best-practices for patients to ensure accurate Urine Test reports. Read more here.
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All Things Kidney Official
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2 thoughts on “Urinalysis: Must-Know Facts

  1. Berna jane

    Hi good evening can you help me.
    This is my urinalysis result.
    Macroscopic
    Color: yellow
    Transparency: hazy
    Reaction (ph): 6.0
    Specific gravity: 1.025

    Microscopic
    Pus cell: 2.5
    Rbc: 0.2
    Epithelial Cells: few
    Renal cells: —
    Casts: —-
    Mucus threads: moderate

    CHEMISTRY:
    Protein:. NEGATIVE
    Sugar:. NEGATIVE

    CRYSTALS
    uric acid. : ——
    Amorphous Urates. :——-
    Amorphous Phosphate:——–
    Calcium Oxalate. :——–
    Bacteria. : FEW

    • All Things Kidney

      Hello, thanks for contacting ATK. In the absence of direct patient consultation and clinical examination, we will be unable to provide you with a complete clinical (diagnostic) opinion.

      However, here are a few observations on your Urinalysis Report here:

      – A hazy appearance & the presence of Bacteria, Pus Cells, RBCs & Mucous threads are usually indicative of a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI).

      – Do you have any additional symptoms such as pain in the lower part of your belly, burning sensation during passing urine or fever?

      – The numbers for RBC & Pus Cell count appear unconventional in your report. Do check if this number is multiplied by a factor of 10 powered to 2 or 3 before the unit (/hpf)?

      Suggestion:
      Consult a doctor to get assessed if you need a Urine Culture / Sensitivity test to pinpoint the specific bacteria causing infection. You will be given antibiotics and other suppoorting meds accordingly.

      Hope this helps!

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